/əˈpɑrtheɪt, -haɪt/ [uh-pahrt-heyt, -hahyt] –noun
1. (in the Republic of South Africa) a rigid policy of segregation of the nonwhite
2. any system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc.
Israel has implemented a system of apartheid against the Palestinian people in
the West Bank and Gaza, and also engages in discriminatory practices against
the Palestinians who live inside Israel.
ISRAELI APARTHEID LAWS
1. Identity and Citizenship
• Law of Return (1950)
Grants right of immigration to Jews born anywhere in the world. Amended in
1970 to extend this right to “a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a
Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew.” A
“Jew” is defined as “a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become
converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion.” Non-Jewish
native-born Palestinians – most importantly those who fled during the Zionist
massacres in 1947 and 1948 – are in most cases prevented from returning.
• Nationality (/Citizenship) Law (1952)
Confers automatic citizenship upon all who immigrate under the Law of Return.
Non-Jews – including native-born Palestinians – must prove residency and pass
other tests; citizenship is granted at the discretion of the Minister of the Interior.
Under the new interim policy for “family unification” passed by the Israeli Cabinet
in 2002, and made part of the Nationality and Entry into Israel Law by the
Knesset in 2003, a discriminatory system has been put in place preventing
applications for residency or citizenship from Palestinian spouses of Israeli
• Population Registry Law (1965)
Requires all residents of Israel to register their nationality – Jewish, Arab, Druze –
with the Population Registry and to obtain an identity card carrying this
• Identity Card (Possession and Presentation) Law (1982)
Residents must carry identity cards at all times and present them to “senior
police officers, to the heads of local authorities, or to police officers or soldiers on
duty when requested to do so.”
• Absentee Property Law (1950)
Classifies the personal property of Palestinians who fled during the Zionist terror
campaign of 1947/48 as “absentee property” and places it within the power of the
Custodian of Absentee Property. According to the law, even the property of
Palestinians who are present within the newly created state of Israel, but are not
physically present on their property (“internal refugees”), becomes “absentee
property.” This creates the category of “present absentees.”
• Land Acquisition (Validity of Acts and Compensation) Law (1953)
Confiscates the land of more than 400 Palestinian villages; “validates”
retroactively their use for military purposes and for Jewish settlements.
• Development Authority (Transfer of Property Law) (1950)
Transfers confiscated Palestinian villages and private property to the
Development Authority, which is empowered to dispose of it in the interests of
the State, giving priority to the Jewish National Fund – a Zionist organization
aimed at settling Jewish immigrants to Israel. Both the JNF and the Jewish
Agency – organizations that act exclusively in the interest of Jews – take on the
status of quasi-governmental organizations within the framework of the
Development Authority Law
• World Zionist Organization (Jewish Agency (Status) Law (1952)
Establishes the World Zionist Organization and the Jewish Agency as
organizations with governmental status in fulfilling Zionist objectives – the
immigration and settlement of Jews in Palestine.
• National Planning and Building Law (1965)
Creates a system of discriminatory zoning that freezes existing Arab villages
while providing for the expansion of Jewish settlements. The law also re-
classifies a large number of Arab villages as “non-residential” creating the
“unrecognized villages.” These villages do not receive basic municipal services
such as water and electricity; all buildings are threatened with demolition orders.
• Land Acquisition in the Negev (Peace Treaty with Egypt) Law (1980)
Seizes thousands of dunums of land from Bedouins for the purpose of expanding
3. Political Participation
• Section 7A(1) of the Basic Law: The Knesset (1958), passed in 1985
Bars a list of candidates from participation in elections to the Knesset “if its aims
or actions, expressly or by implication” deny “the existence of the State of Israel
as the state of the Jewish people.”
• The Law of Political Parties (1992)
Bars the Registrar of Political Parties from registering a political party if it denies
“the existence of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic State.” In 2002
both Section 7A(1) of the Basic Law: the Knesset and the Law of Political Parties
were amended further to bar those whose goals or actions, directly or indirectly,
“support armed struggle of an enemy state or of a terror organization, against the
State of Israel.” These amendments were added expressly to curtail the political
participation of Palestinian Arabs within Israel – such as Azmi Bishara – who have
expressed solidarity with Palestinians resisting military occupation in the West
Bank and Gaza.
4. Judicial Practice: Equal Protection Cases
The Israeli courts – guided by the Supreme Court – have consistently decided that
discrimination between Arabs and Jews is legitimate based on the founding principles of
Israel as a state for the Jewish people; “nationality” is considered a legitimate basis for
In the State of Israel vs. Ashgoyev (1988), an Israeli settler was convicted by the Tel
Aviv District Court of shooting a Palestinian child. The judge sentenced him to a
suspended jail term of six months and community service. When challenged by critics,
the trial judge, Uri Shtruzman, said: “It is wrong to demand in the name of equality, equal
bearing and equal sentences to two offenders who have different nationalities who break
the laws of the State. The sentence that deters the one and his audience, does not deter
the other and his community.”
Defense (Emergency) Regulations
During the Arab revolt against British colonialism in Palestine from 1936-1939, the
British government enacted a series “Defense Orders” and “Emergency Regulations”
that imposed martial law upon the Arab population. These laws were consolidated in
1945 as the Defense (Emergency) Regulations and imposed upon the entire population,
including Zionists who were then seeking full control of Palestine independently of their
British sponsors. Yacob Shimshon Shapira–who would later become the Israeli Attorney
General and Minister of Justice–said before a meeting of the Jewish Bar Association in
Tel Aviv in 1946 to protest the regulations:
“The regime established in Palestine with the publication of the Emergency Regulations
is quite unique for enlightened countries. Even Nazi Germany didn’t have such laws, and
acts such as those perpetrated at Maidanek actually ran against the letter of German
law. It is true we are assured that the Regulations are aimed solely against offenders
and not against the entire population, but it will be remembered that the Nazi governor of
occupied Oslo, too, declared no harm would befall citizens who would just go about their
business as usual. No government is entitled to enact legislation of this kind…” 
Just as the Zionists had made no protest during the period when such laws were used
only against Arabs – and in the interest of the official British policy of Zionist colonization
– after the foundation of Israel in 1948, the Knesset passed a series of laws extending
their applicability under the newly formed government, and thereby imposed martial law
upon the entire Arab Palestinian population. The Defense (Emergency) Regulations
gave military commanders full authority to imprison people without trial, to bar travel, to
demolish homes, and to seize property. This last power played a significant role in
further dispossessing Arab Palestinians of their land. Regulation 125 gives a Military
Commander the power to declare any area or place to be a “closed area” and makes it a
violation of the law for any person to enter or leave “without a permit in writing issued by
or on behalf of the Military Commander.”
“…from 1948 the Israeli authorities used this regulation to close villages, extensive tracts
of arable land and towns for the purpose of expropriating them.
Every Arab village or town, whether inhabited or not, was declared to be a separate
closed area. Arabs were not allowed to leave their village or town, even for the purpose
of cultivating their lands or collecting their olives or fruits, unless they obtained a military
permit to do so. Any Arab who contravened this order was brought before a Military
Court and summarily tried. An atmosphere of fear, terror and oppression reigned in Arab
areas. Every other night or so, military units combed villages and towns, collected Arabs
from their homes and sent them in military trucks to the Lebanese border or the
Jordanian armistice line and ordered them, under threat of being shot, to cross to the
Although military rule was partially lifted in 1966, after the 1967 invasion of the
remainder of Palestine the entire system of military administration was once again used
in full force in the newly occupied territories. Thus the power of military commanders to
declare “closed areas” is now being used extensively in the building of the Apartheid wall
and in the seizure of lands between the wall and the Green Line for use in rapid
In addition, various parts of the Defense (Emergency) Regulations have remained in
force within Green Line and are increasingly being invoked since the Palestinian uprising
In 2002, for example, Minister of Interior Eli Yishai began invoking his power under
Emergency Regulations (Foreign Travel) (1948) to prevent Arab political leaders from
leaving the country. (Adalah’s Report Recent Developments–The Rights of the
Palestinian Minority in Israel, 2 October 2002).
The Emergency Powers (Detention) Law (1979) has been used to detain Palestinian
Arab citizens of Israel without benefit of trial and without permitting contact with lawyers.
The Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 1948 classifies as indictable for up to five years
in prison an act which “sympathizes with a terrorist organization” and includes “flying a
flag or displaying a symbol or slogan or by causing an anthem or slogan to be heard.”
After the Palestinian uprising of 2000, the state began using this ordinance to punish
Arab Palestinian political leaders with Israeli Citizenship who have expressed support for
the Palestinian resistance to the occupation in the West Bank and Gaza.
The Press Ordinance (1933) requires that all newspapers must gain a permit from the
state in order to publish; article 19 gives the Minister of the Interior the power to stop
publication. In conjunction with Article 94 of the Defense (Emergency) Regulations
(1945) a regional supervisor has the power to determine “as he sees fit, and without
providing any reasons” those newspapers which can be legally published. During the
First and Second Intifadas these laws have been used to close Arabic language
newspapers that express support for the uprisings.
These and other ordinances have been used to violate the basic human rights of
Palestinian citizens of Israel in key areas such as freedom of movement, freedom of
expression, and the protection against arbitrary detentions and seizures of property.
Discussion based on “Israeli Land Seizure under Various Defense and Emergency Regulations,” by
Hanna Dib Nakkara, Journal of Palestine Studies, 1985
 Ibid., quoting Ha Praklit (The Solicitor), February 1946
 Ibid, p. 15
The following is a list of companies that benefit financially from Israeli apartheid.
If you decide to boycott any of these companies, please send a letter to the
company’s management, telling them why you are boycotting.
Many of the companies which profit from Israeli apartheid are weapons
manufacturers, with no consumer aspect (although there is a potential for a
divestment campaign targeting those firms). The following list of companies are
those which profit from Israeli apartheid, and also sell consumer products. There
are many more, but we are focusing on businesses that sell products in the US.
GENERAL ELECTRIC (appliances)
As both a billion-dollar arms dealer and owner of the NBC network, America’s
General Electric is uniquely positioned to profit from the new arms race – and
simultaneously to influence what the public knows about the weapons buildup.
GE remains one of the world’s three largest jet-engine makers (besides Pratt &
Whitney and Rolls-Royce PLC), and subcontracts extensively to Boeing,
Lockheed Martin, and other leading aircraft and helicopter manufacturers.
General Electric makes engines for Boeing’s Apache Helicopters – AH 64s –
used by the Israeli military to strafe Palestinian civilians as well as to bomb
Jeff Immelt, CEO
General Electric Company
Fairfield, CT 06828
203 373 2211
“I’m out talking about this company seven days a week, 24 hours a day, with
nothing to hide. We’re a 130-year-old company that has a great record of high-
quality leadership and a culture of integrity.”
— Jeff Immelt, Chairman and CEO
MOTOROLA: (cell phones)
Although Motorola in April 2009 dropped its subsidiary that produces fuses for
the MK-80 series of bombs, Motorola continues to produce radar systems for use
by the Israeli military and telecommunications infrastructure for the military and
settlements. So the campaign against Motorola continues, but we count the
dropping of the MK-80 fuses to be a major victory for the boycott campaign.
In March, 2008 Motorola responded to allegations by the US Campaign to End
the Israeli Occupation that Motorola practices in Israel are in breach of
international human rights standards. The company said that they will conduct a
review of “internationally recognized human rights standards”, and that they have
a policy which supports human rights and ethical business conduct in all its
business practices. They have not reported the results of that investigation.
See: http://www.hanguponmotorola.org for more information
CATERPILLAR (construction equipment, clothing)
Caterpillar is a company based in Illinois that manufactures large construction
equipment such as bulldozers, tractors, various demolition equipment and has a
line of “tough guy” clothing apparel.
Caterpillar happily supplies Israel with all of its current fleet of D9 and D10
bulldozers, some of the largest armored bulldozers in the world. These
bulldozers have been used to demolish over 7,000 homes in Palestine since
1967 regardless of whether people were inside or not. This is one of many
human rights violations Israel has committed. Caterpillar is aware of what its
equipment is being used for and fully supports Israel. A Caterpillar D9 is also the
same bulldozer that ran over and killed Rachel Corrie, a peaceful American
protester standing in front of a Palestinian home… the driver said “she was in the
way” and proceeded to run her over… twice. Her parents have tried to sue
Caterpillar over their daughter’s death, but the case was thrown out in US court.
CEO James W. Owens
100 North East Adams Street
Peoria, Illinois 61629
or call the Office of Business Practices, which oversees the company’s
adherence to Caterpillar’s Code of Conduct.
309-494-4393 or 1-800-300-7898.
Caterpillar Inc. Named To 2008’s “World’s Most Ethical Companies” List For
Nestlé (food products)
The Swiss company owns 50.1% of Israeli food maker Osem Investments. In
Dec 2000, it announced it would invest millions of dollars to operate the new
R&D centre in Israel. Osem has, since 2003, donated a portion of its profits to the
Jewish National Fund for the purpose of ‘planting trees in Israel’. Most of the tree-
plantings, however, take place on illegally seized land in the West Bank and East
Jerusalem. Osem also contracts with a packaging company RonoPolidan
Packaging, located in the Barkan Industrial Zone, which is an Israeli settlement in
the West Bank.
In 1998, Mr. Peter Brabeck-Letmathe on behalf of Nestlé, received the Jubilee
Award by the Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu. This is the highest tribute ever
awarded by the “State of Israel” in recognition of those individuals and
organizations, that through their investments and trade relationships, have done
the most to strengthen the Israeli economy.
Contact: by phone at +41 21 924 2111 or
Paul Bulcke, CEO
KIMBERLY-CLARK: (Huggies, Kotex, Kleenex)
Kimberly Clark Corp owns a 49.9% interest in Israeli company Hogla through
America-Israel PaperMills. Hogla’s importer and distributor, Golden Ryd Dyl, is
located in Mishor Edomim Industrial Zone, which is a settlement in the occupied
In 1998, Mr. Robert P. Van der Merwe, chairman of Kimberly-Clark Europe
received the Jubilee Award by the Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu. This is the
highest tribute ever awarded by the “State of Israel” in recognition of those
individuals and organizations, that through their investments and trade
relationships, have done the most to strengthen the Israeli economy.
Kimberly-Clark is the world’s leading producer of paper tissue products and
home paper products. Its brand names include Scott, Kleenex, Cottonelle,
Huggies, Kotex, and Viva.
Thomas J. Falk, CEO
P.O. Box 2020
Neenah, WI 54957-2020
from the company’s website:
“We regularly consult with the communities where we work to understand their
concerns and identify common goals and needs. Together we agree on the
approach that will best serve the community and that will have the most positive
Environmental groups also boycott Kimberly-Clark because of their refusal to use
recycled paper products, and their insistence on using only virgin forests for their
L’Oreal Israel manufacturers a line of products using Dead Sea minerals under
the name “Natural Sea Beauty” that is exported to 22 countries. It should be
noted that one-third of the western shore of the Dead Sea lies in the Israeli-
occupied West Bank. While the entire shore and its resources are systematically
closed to Palestinians by Israeli military occupation and apartheid practices,
Israel exploits the Dead Sea for international tourism, mining and improving its
At a time when other companies are divesting from Israel due to its human rights
record, Starbucks has begun re-investing in the country where it had originally
stopped operating in 2006:
Mr Shultz, who does not appear to have condemned the building of illegal Israeli
settlements on occupied land, spearheaded Starbucks’ entry into the Israeli
market last year with its first two coffee shops – built through a joint venture
company called Shalom Coffee Ltd – in Tel Aviv. By the end of this year,
Starbucks plans to have a total of 20 coffee houses operating throughout Israel.
Mr Shultz is a regular visitor to Israel and one of many personalities who have
been brought to Jerusalem as a guest of the Theodor Herzl mission, at whose
gala dinner is held an award ceremony of the Friends of Zion to honour those
“who have played key roles in promoting close alliance between the United
States and Israel”.
AHAVA (Dead Sea salts, mud masks):
CODEPINK’s Stolen Beauty is a boycott campaign against Ahava Dead Sea
Laboratories and its products. Ahava markets its products, including Dead Sea
mineral bath salts, as “Made in Israel,” with the slogan “This Leaf has Nothing to
Hide.” But in fact its products are manufactured in a factory compound located in
an illegal settlement in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and it uses
resources stolen from Palestinian land, in direct contravention of international
CODEPINK calls on all people of conscience to join our boycott against Ahava.
The goals of CODEPINK’s Stolen Beauty campaign are to hold Ahava
accountable for its profiteering and breaching of international law, to educate our
communities about the ongoing occupation of Palestine, and to build public
support for a just and sustainable peace for both Israelis and Palestinians.
CODEPINK takes no position on a one-state or two-state solution to the Israeli-
Palestinian conflict, and believes all parties should respect international law,
including relevant UN Security Council resolutions and the Geneva Convention.
* Ahava, formally Ahava Dead Sea Laboratories (www.ahava.co.il), is a
privately held Israeli cosmetics company that manufactures products using
minerals and mud from the captured natural resources of the Dead Sea in the
occupied Palestinian territories.
* Ahava products are labeled as of ‘Israeli origin,’ however the company’s main
factory and its visitors’ center are located in the Israeli settlement of Mitzpe
Shalem in the Occupied Territory of the Palestinian West Bank.
* According to international public law, including the relevant UN Security
Council Resolutions, the West Bank cannot be considered to be part of the State
of Israel. Thus, this labeling is false and illegal.
* This also means Ahava profits by stealing, manufacturing and selling
resources from Palestine: because it harvests minerals from mud pulled from the
Dead Sea, from the Occupied West Bank (Palestinian) land, it is technically
stealing resources. The fourth Geneva Convention explicitly forbids an occupying
power from removing the captured natural resources for its own use, and we see
this as another charge for which this company should be held accountable.
Companies invested directly in Israeli apartheid policies
(check your investments: are you invested in apartheid?)
•ALLIANT TECH SYSTEMS (NYSE:ATK) Rubber-coated bullets. Fuses for
cluster bombs. Guided Multiple Launch Rocket Systems.
•BLOCKBUSTER (NYSE:BBI) has kiosks in illegal settlements on occupied
•BOEING (NYSE:BA) Major supplier of the F-15 Eagle and the AH-64 Apache
attack helicopter. Missile systems, F-15 software, Apache Helicopters, and Joint
Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM).
•CATERPILLAR (NYSE:CAT) Bulldozers and construction equipment
•CEMENT ROADSTONE HOLDINGS (CRH) (NYSE: CRH) Cement for the
Separation Wall and settlements
•GENERAL DYNAMICS (NYSE:GD) Diesel engine for Israel’s battle tanks.
M60A3 Main Battle Tanks. Equipment for F16 Fighting Falcon Jets. MK-84
“general purpose” bombs, spares and repair parts
•GENERAL ELECTRIC (NYSE:GE) Propulsion system for Israel’s AH-64 Apache
Assault Helicopter, engines for a variety of military aircraft, service contracts for
engineering support and testing.
•GLOBECOMM SYSTEMS INC (GSI) (New York) (NASDAQ: GCOM)
equipment and facilities for communication between all branches of the IDF
•ITT CORPORATION (NYSE:ITT) Intensifier tubes for night vision goggles.
Previously provided battlefield communication radios.
•LOCKHEED MARTIN (NYSE:LMT) is the single biggest overseas supplier for
the Israeli armaments industry. Arms, missile systems and fighter planes.
•MAGAL SECURITY SYSTEMS (NASDAQ:MAGS) Intrusion detection fencing
for the separation wall.
•MOTOROLA (NYSE:MOT) Radar systems for security at settlements. Cell
phone communications system for IDF. Fuses for weapons. Has cell phone
towers in the settlements.
•NORTHROP GRUMMAN (NYSE:NOC) F-16I Sufa (‘Storm’) aircraft radar, fire
control radar and the Hellfire Missile for Apache helicopters.
•OSHKOSH TRUCK CORPORATION mobility tactical trucks for the Israeli
Military; more than 900 armor kits for Israel’s Medium Tactical Vehicles.
•RAYTHEON (NYSE:RTN) Patriot, Sparrow, Sidewinder, Maverick and TOW
•SILICON GRAPHICS (SGI) (NASDAQ:SGIC) Visual system training for Israeli
Air Force F-15 and F-16 pilots. Graphics system for Helicopter Aircrew Weapon
•TEREX (NYSE:TEX) Medium tactical trucks and logistical support to the Israeli
army. Trucks used by the Israeli army to mount artillery systems. Mobile
floodlight towers. Construction cranes. Training, service and spare parts.
•UNITED TECHNOLOGIES (NYSE:UTX) Blackhawk helicopters, engines for
Israel’s F-15 and F-16 aircraft, fleet management of these engines.
•VEOLIA ENVIRONNEMENT (NYSE:VE) Partner in a new $500 million light rail
system designed to link Jerusalem to the illegal settlements of the occupied West
Bank. Contract to operate the system for the next 30 years.
•VOLVO (NASDAQ:VOLV) Bulldozers and construction equipment.
For more information:
• On the Ahava: Stolen Beauty campaign, recent protest events and more,
go to http://www.stolenbeauty.org.
• To research companies’ involvement in the occupation, go to
http://www.whoprofits.org (project of The Israeli Coalition of Women for Peace)
• On the international Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions Campaign, go to